Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

Walmart International has faced several **internationalization drivers** that have presented challenges for the company. Some of these drivers include:

Cultural Differences: Walmart's expansion into different countries has exposed the company to diverse cultural norms, consumer preferences, and business practices. Adapting to **local cultures **and consumer behaviors can be a complex task, requiring a deep understanding of the local market and tailoring the company's operations and offerings accordingly.

Regulatory and Legal **Environment:** Operating in multiple countries means facing varying regulatory frameworks, legal systems, and government policies. Compliance with local laws and regulations, including labor laws, taxation, and trade policies, can pose challenges for Walmart International. Adapting to these requirements and managing legal complexities in different markets can be demanding.

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## Related Questions

lint Hills, Inc. has prepared a year-end 2021 trial balance. Certain accounts in the trial balance do not reflect all activities that have occurred.

The Supplies account shows a balance of $800, but a count of supplies reveals only $340 on hand.

Flint Hills initially records the payments of all insurance premiums as expenses. The trial balance shows a balance of $550 in Insurance expense. A review of insurance policies reveals that $190 of insurance is unexpired.

Flint Hills employees work Monday through Friday, and salaries of $3,700 per week are paid each Friday. Flint Hills' year-end falls on Tuesday.

On December 31, 2021, Flint Hills received a utility bill for December electricity usage of $320 that will be paid in early January of 2022.

Required:

Prepare adjusting journal entries, as needed, for the above items. (If no entry is required for a transaction/event, select "No journal entry required" in the first account field.)

### Answers

The** journal entries** for following transaction are :-

Debit Credit

1. Supplies Expense $460

Supplies $460

2.**Prepaid Insurance** $360

Insurance Expense $360

3.Salaries Expense $740

Salaries Payable $740

4. Utility Expense $320

Accrued Utilities Payable $320

To adjust for the discrepancies and events mentioned, the following adjusting **journal entries** are required:

1.** Supplies Adjustment**:

Debit: Supplies Expense - $460

Credit: Supplies - $460

Explanation: Supplies on hand are counted at $340, so the difference of $460 ($800 - $340) is recorded as Supplies Expense.

2.** Insurance Adjustment**:

Debit: Prepaid Insurance - $190

Credit: Insurance Expense - $190

Explanation: $190 of insurance is still unexpired, so it needs to be reclassified from Insurance Expense to Prepaid Insurance.

3.** Salary Adjustment:**

Debit: Salary Expense - $1,850

Credit: Salaries Payable - $1,850

Explanation: As the year-end falls on a Tuesday, two days' worth of salaries ($3,700/5 days * 2 days) need to be accrued and recorded as Salaries Expense with the offset to Salaries Payable.

4**.Utility Expense Adjustment (Accrual):**

Debit: Utility Expense - $320

Credit: Accrued Utilities Payable - $320

Explanation: The utility bill of $320 for December usage, which will be paid in January, needs to be recognized as an expense and recorded as Accrued Utilities Payable.

No journal entry is required for the payment of insurance premiums as expenses since it is already recorded correctly.

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5. (Yield to maturity) You are considering buying a 15 year semi-annual bond with a $1000 face value, 12% coupon rate, and a price 82.5% of face value. What rate of rate of return will this bond give you? 6. (Bond Types) Why is a "zero" bond called such? Why is a "convertible" bond called such?

### Answers

The **bond** will give a **yield to maturity** of approximately 15.53%.

To calculate the yield to maturity (YTM) of a bond, we need to consider the bond's **coupon rate**, price, face value, and time to maturity. In this case, the bond has a 12% coupon rate, a price of 82.5% of face value, a face value of $1000, and a maturity period of 15 years.

The yield to maturity represents the rate of return an investor can expect to receive if they hold the bond until maturity. It takes into account both the **coupon payments **and any capital gain or loss from buying the bond at a discount or premium.

To calculate the YTM, we can use financial calculators or software that have the bond **yield function**. By inputting the relevant information (coupon rate, price, face value, and time to maturity), we can find that the YTM for this bond is approximately 15.53%.

Therefore, if an investor purchases this bond and holds it until maturity, they can expect an average annual rate of return of around 15.53%. This includes both the periodic coupon payments and the **capital gain** or loss from the purchase price.

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The following information is made available by Glesen Corp: 1. Glesen Corp. purchased land with two old buildings on it as a factory site for $460,000. The property tax assessment on this property was $350,000: $250,000 for the land and the rest for the buildings. 2. It took six months to tear down the old buildings and construct the factory. The company paid $50,000 to demolish the old buildings and sold salvaged lumber and brick for $6,300. 3. Legal fees of $1,850 were paid for title investigation and drawing up the purchase contract. 4. Payment to an engineering firm was made for a land survey, $2,200, and for drawing the factory plans, $82,000. The land survey had to be made before final plans could be drawn. 5. The liability insurance premium that was paid during construction was $4,000. 6. The contractor's charge for construction was $3,640,000. 7. Interest costs of $170,000 were incurred to finance the construction. Required: Allocate the costs identified in items (1) through (7) above to Land and Building. If a cost is not allocated to either land or building, specify which account it will be recorded to.

### Answers

(1) The **cost allocation** is: Land $250,000, Building $210,000. The total purchase price of $460,000 is divided between land and buildings in proportion to their respective market values.

(2) The demolition cost of $50,000 is included in the **cost **of building because it is part of the cost of preparing the site for construction. The $6,300 received from selling salvaged lumber and bricks is a reduction in the total cost of demolition, and hence a reduction in the cost of the building.

(3) The legal fees are part of the cost of the land.

(4) The land survey cost of $2,200 is part of the cost of the **land **because it was incurred before the final plans were drawn. The cost of drawing the factory plans of $82,000 is a cost of the building.

(5) The **insurance premium** is a cost of construction, and hence a cost of the building.

(6) The **cost of construction** is a cost of the building.

(7) Interest costs incurred during the construction period are added to the cost of the building because they are part of the cost of acquiring the building. Interest costs after the construction **period **are not part of the cost of the building. Land = $252,050; Building = $4,019,950.

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A company normally ships to a customer by rail at a cost of $500 per load. The transit time is 14 days. The goods can be shipped by truck for $700 per load and a transit time of 4 days. If transit inventory cost is $35 per day, what does it cost to ship each way?

### Answers

It costs $500 to ship by rail and $700 to ship by truck.

To calculate the cost of** shipping** by rail, we multiply the cost per load ($500) by the transit time (14 days). This gives us a cost of $7,000 for rail shipping.

To calculate the cost of shipping by truck, we multiply the cost per load ($700) by the transit time (4 days). This gives us a cost of $2,800 for truck shipping.

In addition to the shipping costs, there is also a transit** inventory** cost of $35 per day. This cost is incurred for both rail and truck shipping options.

For rail shipping, the transit inventory cost is calculated by** multiplying** the transit time (14 days) by the cost per day ($35). This gives us a transit inventory cost of $490 for rail shipping.

For truck shipping, the transit inventory cost is calculated by multiplying the** transit** time (4 days) by the cost per day ($35). This gives us a transit inventory cost of $140 for truck shipping.

Now we can add the shipping costs and the transit inventory costs for each shipping option to get the total cost for each way:

Rail shipping: $7,000 (shipping cost) + $490 (transit inventory cost) = $7,490

Truck shipping: $2,800 (shipping cost) + $140 (transit inventory cost) = $2,940

it costs $7,490 to ship by rail and $2,940 to ship by truck.

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While gross domestic product (GDP) measures the size of a nation's economy and is widely used as an indicator of living standards, it does have limitations in that it does not fully take into account

### Answers

The overall well-being and quality of life of the **population**. Here are some limitations of **GDP **as a measure of living standards:

Non-Market Activities: GDP primarily focuses on market-based **economic **activities and does not account for non-market activities such as household work, **volunteer **work, and informal sector activities. These activities contribute to people's well-being but are not included in GDP calculations.

Income Distribution: GDP does not provide information about the distribution of income among the population. It is possible for a country to have a high GDP but with significant income inequality, where a small portion of the population benefits greatly while others experience lower living standards.

Quality of Life Factors: GDP does not capture various factors that contribute to overall quality of life, such as access to healthcare, education, **social **services, and environmental sustainability. A country may have a high GDP, but if its citizens lack access to these essential services, their living standards may be compromised.

Externalities and Environmental Impact: GDP does not account for the negative externalities associated with economic activities, such as pollution, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation. These factors can have long-term implications for living standards and sustainability.

Intangible Factors: GDP focuses on tangible economic output and fails to capture intangible aspects of well-being, such as happiness, social cohesion, cultural preservation, and personal freedoms. These factors are important contributors to a high quality of life but are not reflected in GDP measurements.

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Statement number

Statement

(1)

A trust has its own tax file number (TFN) and must lodge an annual tax return showing all income and deductions of the trust estate, plus any distributions to its beneficiaries.

(2)

Trusts do not pay income tax, rather the trust income will be taxed either in the hands of the beneficiaries or the trustee (or a combination of both).

(3)

As a trust is not a separate legal entity it is ineligible to register for GST or obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN).

(4)

An advantage of using a trust as a business structure is that a trust has perpetual existence and can continue indefinitely.

(5)

An advantage of using a trust as a business structure is that revenue losses flow through to the beneficiaries.

Which of the above statements are TRUE?

[A] Only statements numbered (1) and (2) are true.

[B] Only statements numbered (1) and (4) are true.

[C] Only statements numbered (1), (3) and (4) are true.

[D] Only statements numbered (1), (3) and (5) are true.

[E] Only statements numbered (1), (2), (4) and (5) are true.

### Answers

Based on the analysis, the true statements are numbered (1), (2), (4), and (5). Therefore, the correct answer is [E] Only statements numbered (1), (2), (4), and (5) are true.A trust has its own tax file number (TFN) and must lodge an annual tax return showing all **income **and deductions of the trust estate, plus any distributions to its beneficiaries.

Statement (1): A trust has its own tax file number (TFN) and must lodge an annual tax return showing all income and deductions of the trust estate, plus any distributions to its **beneficiaries**. This statement is true. Trusts are required to file tax returns and report their income, deductions, and distributions.

Statement (2): Trusts do not pay income tax, rather the trust income will be taxed either in the hands of the beneficiaries or the trustee (or a combination of both). This statement is true. Trusts are not subject to income tax at the entity level. Instead, the income is distributed to beneficiaries and taxed in their hands, or it can be taxed in the hands of the trustee if it remains undistributed.

Statement (3): As a trust is not a separate **legal **entity, it is ineligible to register for GST or obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). This statement is false. Trusts can register for GST and obtain an ABN if they meet the requirements.

Statement (4): An advantage of using a trust as a business structure is that a trust has perpetual existence and can continue indefinitely. This statement is true. Unlike other business structures, a trust can continue to exist even if the beneficiaries or trustees change. It provides continuity for the business.

Statement (5): An advantage of using a trust as a business structure is that revenue losses flow through to the beneficiaries. This statement is true. In a trust structure, losses can be distributed to beneficiaries, and they can use those losses to offset their own personal income, reducing their overall **tax **liability.

Based on the analysis, the true statements are numbered (1), (2), (4), and (5). Therefore, the correct answer is [E] Only statements numbered (1), (2), (4), and (5) are true.

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Why does the market segmentation theory fail in explaining facts

two and three of the term structure of interest rates?

What do you recommend rectifying the problem?

### Answers

**Market segmentation** theory fails to explain facts two and three of the term structure of **interest rates** because it emphasizes the view of isolated market segments that depend on supply and demand forces. Instead, the behavior of one market segment will affect the behavior of another in reality.

Market segmentation theory is a hypothesis that **postulates **that the interest rate market is segmented, with different interest rates **prevailing **for different maturities, different market participants, and different **financial instruments**. This theory asserts that each market segment is independent and that interest rates within each segment are determined by supply and demand forces. In contrast to this, we have the term structure of **interest rates**, which is a graphical representation of the relationship between interest rates and the maturities of securities. This structure explains that the interest rate does not depend on one market segment but is interdependent across different market segments. Market segmentation theory fails to explain facts two and three of the term structure of interest rates because it does not consider the interdependence of different market segments, which makes it too simplistic to explain the term structure of interest rates. In order to rectify this problem, we can use other theories such as the expectations theory and liquidity preference theory to explain the term structure of interest rates, which take into account the interdependence of different market segments. These theories can provide a more realistic view of how interest rates are determined in different market segments, which can be useful for understanding the behavior of the interest rate market.

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When the price of a soft drink from the campus vending machine was $0.60 per can, 250 cans were sold each day. After the price increased to $0.80 per can, sales dropped to 190 cans per day. Using these numbers, the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks was equal to ________________.

### Answers

The price **elasticity **of demand for soft drinks was equal to -0.727.

Price elasticity of demand measures how responsive the quantity **demanded **is to changes in price.

Change in Quantity Demanded / % Change in Price

You can use this formula to calculate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks.

The initial price of the soft drink** **was $0.60, and the initial quantity demanded was 250 cans per day. The new price is $0.80, and the new quantity demanded is 190 cans per day.

Using the formula,% Change in **Quantity Demanded **= ((New Quantity Demanded - Initial Quantity Demanded) / Initial Quantity Demanded) x 100%

Change in Quantity Demanded = ((190 - 250) / 250) x 100%

Change in Quantity Demanded = -0.24 x 100%

Change in Quantity Demanded = -24%%

Change in **Price **= ((New Price - Initial Price) / Initial Price) x 100%

Change in Price = (($0.80 - $0.60) / $0.60) x 100%

Change in Price = 0.33 x 100% Change in Price = 33%

Now, let's put these values in the formula of price elasticity of demand.

Price elasticity of demand = %

Change in Quantity Demanded / % Change in Price

Price elasticity of demand = -24% / 33%

Price elasticity of demand = -0.727

Therefore, the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks was equal to -0.727.

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Suppose that the financial ratios of a potential borrowing firm took the following values: X₁ = Net working capital/Total assets = 0.10, X₂ = Retained earnings/Total assets = 0.20, X3 = Earnings before interest and taxes/Total assets = 0.20. X4 Market value of equity/Book value of long-term debt = 0.60, x5 = Sales/Total assets ratio=0.8. Calculate the Altman's Z-score for this firm. (Do not round Intermediate calculations. Round your answer to 3 decimal places. (e.g., 32.161)) Altman's Z-score

### Answers

The Altman **Z-score **for this firm i**s** 2.22.

The Altman Z-score measures several aspects of the company's **financial health**.

A Z-score of 2.99 or less implies that the company is in distress, while a Z-score of 3.0 or more indicates that it is in good financial shape.

The Z-score can be calculated using the formula given below:

Z-score = 1.2X1 + 1.4X2 + 3.3X3 + 0.6X4 + X5

Where:X1 = net working capital/**total assets**

X2 = retained earnings/total assets

X3 = earnings before **interest **and taxes/total assets

X4 = market value of equity/book value of long-term debt

X5 = sales/total assets

Here, the values for the five **ratios **are:X1 = 0.10X2 = 0.20X3 = 0.20X4 = 0.60X5 = 0.8

Now we will use these ratios to calculate the Altman Z-score.

Z-score = 1.2(0.10) + 1.4(0.20) + 3.3(0.20) + 0.6(0.60) + 0.8= 0.12 + 0.28 + 0.66 + 0.36 + 0.8= 2.22

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Select any stock listed in Singapore stock exchange. Using Yahoo finance, download the daily stock data (Open, High, Low, Close, Adj Close, Volume) from year 1 Jan 2020 to 3 Jan 2022. Use data until 31 Dec 2020 for training and the remaining data for testing. You must select the stock such that the data is available from 1 Jan 2020 to 3 Jan 2022. Use previous 30 days of stock information to predict the next day stock price. Use the data in 'High' column to predict the price, i. E. , the next day high price of the stock. Design a LSTM network to do the predictions. You are required to use LSTM with a cell state of at least 60 dimension and do at least 50 epochs of training. Rate the performance of the LSTM classifier and provide necessary plots

### Answers

This task requires you to select a stock with available data, design an **LSTM network**, train it using the specified training data, and evaluate its performance using the testing data.

To complete this task, you need to follow these steps:

1. Select a stock listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange that has data available from January 1, 2020, to January 3, 2022. This ensures you have the required data for training and testing.

2. Use Yahoo Finance to download the daily stock data (Open, High, Low, Close, Adj Close, Volume) for the selected stock within the specified timeframe.

3. Split the data into two sets:** training data** (from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020) and testing data (from January 1, 2021, to January 3, 2022).

4. Design an LSTM network for predicting the next day's high price of the stock. LSTM stands for Long Short-Term Memory and is a type of recurrent neural network commonly used for time series prediction tasks.

5. Set the LSTM cell state to at least 60 dimensions, as specified in the task.

6. Train the LSTM network for at least 50 **epochs**. Each epoch represents one complete pass through the training data.

7. Evaluate the performance of the LSTM classifier by comparing the predicted high prices with the actual high prices from the testing data.

8. Plot the necessary graphs to visualize the performance of the **LSTM network**. This may include plotting the predicted high prices against the actual high prices or other relevant metrics.

In conclusion, this task requires you to select a stock with available data, design an LSTM network, train it using the specified training data, and evaluate its performance using the testing data. Additionally, you need to provide necessary plots to visualize the results.

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Five years ago, Sugar Ltd. raised $35 million by issuing 15 -year corporate bonds at $1,000 par value that carries a coupon rate of 8 percent payable semi-annually. Yield to maturity equals the coupon rate at issue. (a) Calculate the number of the 15-year coupon bonds that Sugar Ltd. issued to raise the $35 million five years ago. What will be the company's repayment be at the maturity date of the 15-year coupon bonds? (b) Last year, you purchased 200 corporate bonds of Sugar Ltd. at an effective rate of return of 12 percent. What was the bond price last year? (c) Based on your answer in part (b), you are forced to sell the bond today due to financial emergency. If the current yield to maturity falls by 1 percent, determine whether this corporate bond is sold at par, premium or discount. No calculation for current bond price is needed. [word limit: 40 words] (4 marks) (d) In general, bond market has a lower trading intensity than stock market. Due to a certain factor, the return on bond will be affected. Name and describe this factor that determines the required return on bond. [word limit: 40 words] Five years ago, Sugar Ltd. raised $35 million by issuing 15-year corporate bonds at $1,000 par value that carries a coupon rate of 8 percent payable semi-annually. Yield to maturity equals the coupon rate at issue. (a) Calculate the number of the 15-year coupon bonds that Sugar Ltd. issued to raise the $35 million five years ago. What will be the company's repayment be at the maturity date of the 15 -year coupon bonds? (b) Last year, you purchased 200 corporate bonds of Sugar Ltd. at an effective rate of return of 12 percent. What was the bond price last year?

### Answers

**Price **of **bond** = $80 x 14.877 + $211.99 = $1,276.39

Sugar Ltd. raised $35 million by issuing 15-year **corporate bonds**. It carries a coupon rate of 8 percent payable semi-annually. Yield to maturity equals the **coupon rate** at issue.To calculate the number of the 15-year coupon bonds that Sugar Ltd. issued, we need to use the following formula:

We know that the face value of the bond, i.e., par value = $1,000Therefore, the number of bonds issued would be:Number of bonds issued = Total amount raised / Bond face valueNumber of bonds issued = $35,000,000 / $1,000 = 35,000 bondsThe company's repayment at the maturity date of the 15-year coupon bonds will be the face value of the bond.

Number of bonds issued = $1,000b) Last year, you purchased 200 corporate bonds of Sugar Ltd. at an effective rate of return of 12 percent. To calculate the bond price, we use the present value of the annuity formula:

PMT = $80 (8% of $1,000)N = 30 (15 years * 2 semi-annual periods)I/Y = 6% (12% / 2 semi-annual periods)FV = $1,000Price of bond = $80 x [(1 - 1 / (1 + 0.06)30) / 0.06] + $1,000 / (1 + 0.06)30Price of bond = $80 x 14.877 + $211.99 = $1,276.39

If the current yield to maturity falls by 1 per cent, we can calculate whether this corporate bond is sold at par, premium or discount. If the yield falls, it means bond prices have increased and therefore, the bond is sold at a premium.

The factor that determines the required return on a bond is the risk premium. It is the additional amount of return that investors require to invest in a bond over and above the risk-free rate. This risk premium is influenced by several factors, including the **creditworthiness **of the issuer, the time to maturity, the coupon rate, and the general market conditions. A bond with a higher risk premium is likely to have a higher yield and a lower price.

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Ace Industrial Machines issued 100,000 zero coupon bonds 4 years ago. The bonds originally had 30 years to maturity with a yield to maturity of 5.8 percent. Interest rates have recently decreased, and the bonds now have a yield to maturity of 4.9 percent. The bonds have a par value of $2,000. If the company has a $73.8 million market value of equity, what weight should it use for debt when calculating the cost of capital? Assume semiannual compounding.

### Answers

The market value of equity is $73.8 **million**

To determine the **weight **of debt when calculating the cost of capital, we need to calculate the market value of the zero coupon bonds and compare it to the market value of equity.

First, let's calculate the market value of the zero coupon bonds. Since they are zero coupon bonds, they do not pay **periodic **interest. Therefore, the market value of the bonds is equal to their present value.

We can use the present value formula for zero coupon bonds:

PV = FV / (1 + r)^n

Where:

PV = Present value of the bonds

FV = Face value or par value of the bonds ($2,000)

r = Yield to **maturity **(4.9% divided by 2 since semiannual compounding, so 0.049/2 = 0.0245)

n = Number of periods (30 years multiplied by 2 since semiannual compounding, so 30 * 2 = 60)

Substituting the values into the formula:

PV = $2,000 / (1 + 0.0245)^60

Now let's calculate the market value of the zero coupon bonds:

Market Value of Bonds = PV * Number of Bonds (100,000)

Next, we compare the market value of the zero coupon bonds to the market value of equity to determine the weight of debt:

Total Market Value = Market Value of Bonds + Market Value of Equity

Weight of Debt = Market Value of Bonds / Total Market Value

Given that Equity has a market worth of $73.8 million, we can calculate the weight of debt by **plugging **in the values into the formula.

we need the actual market value of the bonds to provide an accurate weight of debt.

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dave is purchasing an old gas station which he intends to turn into a flower shop. his lender will most likely ask for

### Answers

When purchasing an old gas station to turn into a flower shop, Dave's lender will most likely ask for specific **documents **and considerations related to the property's conversion and** business viability**.

Firstly, the lender will request documents related to the property's conversion. This is to ensure that the gas station can be legally and safely transformed into a flower shop. These documents may include permits, zoning documentation, and inspections to verify compliance with local regulations and **building codes.**

Secondly, the lender may ask for a comprehensive business plan. This plan will help the lender assess the viability of Dave's flower shop. It should include a market analysis,** financial **projections**,** and strategies for attracting customers and generating revenue. By reviewing the business plan, the lender can determine whether the flower shop is likely to succeed.

Lastly, financial documentation will be required. The lender will ask for financial statements, **tax** returns, and credit history to evaluate Dave's ability to repay the loan. They want to ensure that Dave has a solid financial foundation and can effectively manage the financial responsibilities of running a business.

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a shock causes the demand curve to shift tothe right. what properties of the market are likely to lead to large increase in the equilibrium price? (hint : see the discussion of the shape of the market supply curve and Solved Problem 8.5.)

Such a shock will lead to a larger increase in the equilibrium price if

A. the supply curve slope is steeper.

B. supply is more elastic.

C. there are more firms.

D. firms are price takers.

E. the demand shift is smaller.

### Answers

When a shock causes the demand curve to shift to the right, the market is likely to lead to large increase in the equilibrium price when supply is more **elastic**.

Hence, the correct option is B.Supply and Demand CurveThe market supply curve slopes upwards because, as the price of a good increases, **firms **will produce more of the good. Firms will only produce a higher quantity of goods if the market price is higher, which will induce an increase in the supply quantity.A **market **supply curve can be shifted to the right or left if there is a change in the conditions of production, such as a technological advancement or increase in the costs of inputs.The elasticity of market supply can be used to predict the impact of changes in the market. If the supply **curve **is more elastic (flatter), then a larger increase in the equilibrium quantity and a smaller increase in the equilibrium price will be seen if there is a shift in demand.

Therefore, If the supply curve is more inelastic (steeper), then a smaller increase in the **equilibrium **quantity and a larger increase in the equilibrium price will be seen if there is a shift in demand.

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b) Consider an open economy with fixed price level in which Investment, export import and government spending are assumed to be autonomous. Consumption is directly and linearly related to disposable income while tax is directly and linearly related to national income.

i) Work out the multiplier with change in investment (

### Answers

The multiplier with a change in **investment** in this open **economy **is 1.

To work out the multiplier with a change in investment, we need to consider the relationship between changes in aggregate demand and changes in **national **income in an open economy.

In an open economy, the multiplier can be derived using the following formula:

Multiplier = 1 / (1 - Marginal Propensity to Import * **Marginal** Propensity to Tax)

The Marginal Propensity to Import represents the proportion of each additional unit of income that is spent on imports, and the Marginal Propensity to Tax represents the **proportion** of each additional unit of income that is paid in taxes.

Since the question states that investment, exports, imports, and government spending are assumed to be autonomous, we can assume that the Marginal Propensity to Import and the Marginal Propensity to Tax are both zero. This means that changes in investment will directly affect national income without any leakages due to imports or taxes.

In this case, the multiplier simplifies to:

Multiplier = 1 / (1 - 0 * 0) = 1

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please answer all. thank you so much!

At a local bar in a small Midwestern town, beer and wine are the only two alcoholic options. The manager noted that of all male customers who visited over the weekend, 136 ordered beer, 31 ordered win

### Answers

The total number of male customers that visited the** bar** over the weekend is 167.

Given the following data:

At a local bar in a small Midwestern town, beer and wine are the only two **alcoholic** options.

The manager noted that of all male customers who visited over the weekend, 136 ordered beer, 31 ordered wine.

As we know that total male customers visited over the weekend are not given so we can assume it to be "x".

Let the total number of male customers who visited over the weekend be "x".

Then the total number of male customers that ordered beer is 136 and the total number of male customers that ordered wine is 31.

Therefore, we can write the following equations:

Number of male customers that ordered beer + Number of male customers that ordered wine = Total number of male customers

x = Number of male customers that ordered beer + Number of male customers that ordered wine

Using the given values:

136 + 31 = x167 = x

Therefore, the total number of male customers that visited the bar over the weekend is 167.

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1. Why should one study operations management

2. Identify four people who have contributed to the theory and

techniques of operations managment

3. Briefly describe the contributions of the four indivi

### Answers

Operations **management **is concerned with managing the entire process of converting inputs into outputs. It covers various fields such as planning, **organizing**, staffing, leading, and controlling. Studying operations management has several benefits.

It teaches one how to **develop **products and services that satisfy customer needs; how to increase productivity and efficiency by identifying and eliminating waste; how to manage the workforce effectively; and how to optimize the use of resources to minimize costs.Four people who have **contributed **to the theory and techniques of operations management are as follows: Frederick Taylor, W. Edwards Deming, Henry Gantt, and Eli Whitney.3. Briefly describe the contributions of the four individuals:Fredrick Taylor:

He also introduced time and motion studies to **identify **the most efficient way of performing a task.W. Edwards Deming: He is known for his work on quality control and continuous improvement. He advocated for a culture of quality in which everyone is responsible for improving the **quality **of products and services. His contributions to the Japanese manufacturing industry made him a highly respected figure in Japan.Henry Gantt: He developed the Gantt chart, which is a tool used to manage and schedule tasks in a project. The chart is used to visualize the start and end dates of tasks and helps in identifying critical paths that need to be completed on time.Eli Whitney.

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A Treasury bill with 114 days to maturity is quoted at 97.967.

What is the percentage bank discount yield?

(Do not round intermediate calculations. Enter your answers as a

percent rounded to 3 decimal

### Answers

A **Treasury **bill with 114 days to maturity is quoted at 97.967. The bank **discount **yield is calculated using the formula; D = F * R * t / 360, where D is the discount, F is the face value, R is the bank discount rate, and t is the time to maturity.

The bank discount yield can be obtained using the formula; R = (D / F) * (360 / t).Using the given information, we can determine the **bank **discount yield as follows:

Bank discount = (100 - 97.967) * $1,000

= $30.90

The bank discount yield is;

R = (D / F) * (360 / t)

= (30.90 / 1,000) * (360 / 114)

= 0.98%

The **percentage **bank discount yield is 0.98%.

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Thinking about your last implementation, were you able to challenge the policies and practices that constitute today’s work flow, or were you able to create a work flow solution that eliminated non–value-added steps?

### Answers

The terms that are relevant to the question are **policies**, practices, work flow, non-value-added steps and implementation.Process improvement is the action of making a method or work flow more efficient, powerful, or effective.

When you are trying to create a work flow **solution**, you have to consider policies and practices that are already in place. You can decide to either challenge the policies and practices that constitute today’s work flow or create a work flow solution that eliminates non-value-added steps.Implementing process improvements in any organization may result in increased efficiency and productivity, as well as **improved** customer satisfaction.

This knowledge can be used to enhance the workflow and **eliminate** the unnecessary steps, or to challenge existing policies and practices to create more efficient and effective work processes.

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Which of the following statements are true regarding sources of finance? Select one: a. Partnerships are financed by preference share capital b. Public limited company shares are listed on a stock exchange c. Partners recieve dividends from their shares d. Sole traders raise capital from shareholders

### Answers

statement (b) is the only true statement regarding sources of finance. Public limited company shares can be listed on a stock exchange, providing a means for the company to raise capital from **investors**.

Let's analyze each statement:

a. Partnerships are **financed **by preference share **capital**:

This statement is not true. Partnerships are typically **financed **by the contributions of the partners themselves, through their personal **capital investments **or loans.

b. Public limited company shares are listed on a stock exchange:

This statement is true. Public limited companies, also known as corporations, can issue shares to the public and have them listed on **stock **exchanges. This allows individuals and institutional investors to buy and sell those shares, providing a means for the company to raise capital from a wide range of investors.

c. Partners receive dividends from their shares:

This statement is not accurate. In partnerships, partners typically receive a share of the profits based on their ownership percentage in the business. However, these distributions are commonly referred to as "profits" or "drawings" rather than "dividends."

d. Sole traders raise capital from shareholders:

This statement is incorrect. Sole traders are business owners who operate their business individually. They do not have shareholders like corporations. Instead, sole traders raise capital from their personal savings, loans, or other sources to finance their business activities.

Therefore, statement (b) is the only true statement regarding sources of finance. Public limited company shares can be listed on a stock exchange, providing a means for the company to raise capital from investors.

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wins a legal proceeding related to the contract, they can try to make the loning bartor: lose their license (if the losing party holds a license) declare bankruptcy go through additional licensing education (if the losing party holds a license) pay their attorney's fees and all costs of the legal action

### Answers

These options include seeking the revocation of the losing party's license (if applicable), pushing for **bankruptcy**, requiring additional licensing education (if applicable), and seeking reimbursem*nt for attorney's fees and other costs incurred during the legal action.

When a party successfully wins a legal proceeding concerning a contract, they have the opportunity to take certain actions against the losing party. One option is to pursue the revocation of the losing party's license, especially if the losing party holds a professional license that is relevant to the contract or the industry in question. Revoking a license can serve as a punitive measure and may restrict the losing party from engaging in certain activities or practicing their profession. This can be done to ensure that the winning party receives **compensation **for the damages or losses incurred due to the contract breach.

**Bankruptcy **proceedings can involve liquidation of the losing party's assets to fulfill their financial obligations. If the losing party holds a license, the winning party may also demand that the losing party undergo additional licensing education or training. Lastly, the winning party can seek **reimbursem*nt **for their attorney's fees and all costs associated with the legal action. This provision is often included in contracts or can be pursued through court orders. It aims to compensate the winning party for the expenses they incurred during the legal proceedings, including attorney fees, court filing fees, expert **witness fees**, and other related costs.

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Inventory Control Systems: describe the inventory control

system(s) in COSTCO use and why the company selected the system(s)

they use.

Are they satisfied with the system in use or are they planning

to

### Answers

**COSTCO**, as a retail company, utilizes an inventory control system known as the Just-in-Time (JIT) inventory management system. JIT is a system in which inventory is received from suppliers or manufacturers only when it is needed for immediate use or sale.

COSTCO has chosen the JIT inventory control system for several reasons. Firstly, JIT helps to minimize inventory holding **costs **by reducing the amount of inventory stored in warehouses and distribution centers. By receiving goods only as they are needed, COSTCO can save on costs associated with storage, maintenance, and inventory obsolescence.

Secondly, JIT allows COSTCO to maintain a lean **supply chain**. With a focus on efficiency and cost reduction, COSTCO can minimize waste, improve cash flow, and respond quickly to changes in customer demand. By having the right amount of inventory at the right time, COSTCO can avoid stockouts and prevent overstocking.

Moreover, the JIT inventory control **system **enables COSTCO to foster strong relationships with suppliers. By closely collaborating with suppliers, COSTCO can ensure timely deliveries and maintain a consistent flow of inventory, thereby reducing lead times and enhancing overall operational efficiency.

It is important to note that the information available as of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021 does not provide specific details on whether COSTCO is completely satisfied with the current **inventory **control system or if they have plans for any future changes. Companies continuously evaluate and adapt their inventory management practices based on industry trends, technological advancements, and changing customer preferences.

To obtain the most up-to-date and accurate information regarding COSTCO's inventory control system and any potential future plans, it is recommended to refer to official company statements, reports, or contact **COSTCO **directly.

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10-2 then at 4% a year thereafter. the next 5 years? $0.80 per share dividend at the end of the year (that is, D₁ = $0.80). The dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5% a year. The required rate of return on the stock, rs, is CONSTANT GROWTH VALUATION Sonya Inc. is expected to pay a 10%. What is the stock's current value per share? Jackson's stock currently sells for $30.00 01.50) The divid

### Answers

The **stock's** current value per share is $21.33.

In this question, the dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 5% a year after the first year when the dividend will be $0.80 per share. The required **rate of return **on the stock, rs, is 10%. The constant growth rate is given, along with the current dividend and required return, so the constant growth model is to be used to calculate the **current price **of the stock. We know that the constant growth model is:

P0 = D1 / (rs - g)

Here, P0 is the current price of the stock, D1 is the expected **dividend** next year, rs is the required rate of return, and g is the expected constant growth rate. Plugging in the given values, we get:

P0 = $0.80 x (1 + 5%) / (10% - 5%) = $21.33

Therefore, the current value per share of Sonya Inc. is $21.33.

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Annise Spa & Beauty Sdn Bhd (‘ASB’) operates a hair and beauty spa services centre. ASB’s financial year ends on 30th June. For the year of assessment 2021 ASB incurred the following expenditure:

(a) Light refreshments such as tea, coffee, sandwiches provided to the customer while waiting to be serviced amounting to RM5,900. (2 marks)

(b)Free beauty classes provided to selected single mothers to help them start their own business amounting to RM12,200. (3 marks)

(c) Leave passages to Langkawi for the managing director and two other senior masseuses amounting to RM17,925. The cost is made up of air fare of RM2,125 and the cost of accommodation and food of RM15,800

(d)An annual dinner expense of RM5,500 held at Siakap Senohong Restaurant as an appreciation to all staff who have worked hard the whole year. (3 marks)

(e) Takaful (insurance) recovery of RM3,300 received from Etiqa Takaful for loss of a few beauty products which were damaged due to a small fire at the company’s spa. These products comprised part of the business’s current assets. (3 marks)

Required:

Justify (by indicating the amount in RM) whether each of the above expenditure is deductible in ascertaining ASB’s adjusted income for the year of assessment 2021.

Total: 15 marks

### Answers

(a) Light refreshments provided to **customers **while waiting to be serviced (RM5,900):

The cost of providing light refreshments to customers can be considered as a business expense. It is directly related to enhancing customer experience and maintaining customer satisfaction. Therefore, the expenditure of RM5,900 is deductible in ascertaining ASB's adjusted income for the year of assessment 2021.

(b) Free beauty **classes **provided to selected single mothers (RM12,200):

The cost of providing free beauty classes to selected single mothers is considered a charitable expense. While it may be a noble cause, it is not directly related to ASB's business operations or generating income. Therefore, the expenditure of RM12,200 is not deductible in ascertaining ASB's adjusted income for the year of assessment 2021.

(c) **Leave **passages to Langkawi for the managing director and senior masseuses (RM17,925):

The cost of leave passages to Langkawi for the managing director and senior masseuses can be considered as a business expense if it is related to business meetings, conferences, or training activities. However, if the purpose of the trip is solely for personal enjoyment or leisure, it may not be deductible. Without further information on the purpose of the trip, it is difficult to determine the deductibility of the expenditure. Therefore, additional clarification is needed to justify the deductibility of the RM17,925.

(d) **Annual **dinner expense held at Siakap Senohong Restaurant (RM5,500):

The annual dinner expense held as an appreciation for the staff who have worked hard throughout the year is generally considered a business expense. It is aimed at boosting employee morale, fostering a positive work environment, and acknowledging their contributions. Therefore, the expenditure of RM5,500 is likely deductible in ascertaining ASB's adjusted income for the year of assessment 2021.

(e) Takaful (**insurance**) recovery received for damaged beauty products (RM3,300):

The Takaful recovery received for the damaged beauty products due to a fire is considered a reimbursem*nt for the loss suffered by ASB. Since the original expense for the beauty products was part of ASB's current assets and was previously recognized as an expense, the Takaful recovery should be offset against the original expense. Therefore, the amount of RM3,300 should reduce the deductible expenditure related to the damaged beauty products.

In conclusion, based on the given information:

The **expenditure **for light refreshments provided to customers (RM5,900) is deductible.The expenditure for free beauty classes to single mothers (RM12,200) is not deductible.Further clarification is required to determine the deductibility of the leave passages to Langkawi (RM17,925).The expenditure for the annual dinner (RM5,500) is likely deductible.The Takaful recovery received (RM3,300) should offset the original expense for the damaged beauty products.

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What is Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion (DEI) Efforts and Requirements for Corporate Boards.

Do you think diversity and inclusion laws in the USA were constitutional or are you in favor of the ruling?

Do you believe the mandates were necessary considering companies have shown an increasing number of women and diverse board members?

### Answers

Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion (**DEI**) efforts and requirements for **corporate** boards aim to promote equal representation and opportunities for underrepresented groups.

The constitutionality and favorability of diversity and **inclusion** laws in the USA are subjective and depend on individual perspectives.

Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion (DEI) efforts in the context of corporate boards refer to initiatives and policies that seek to increase **diversity** and ensure equal representation of individuals from underrepresented groups, such as women and minority communities.

These efforts recognize the value of diverse perspectives, experiences, and backgrounds in decision-making processes and aim to create more inclusive and equitable corporate environments.

Requirements for corporate boards related to diversity and inclusion vary across jurisdictions and can include mandates for a certain **percentage** of women or diverse individuals on boards.

The question of the constitutionality and favorability of diversity and inclusion laws in the USA is a complex and debated topic. Some argue that such laws promote equal opportunities, mitigate systemic biases, and foster a more inclusive society, aligning with constitutional principles of fairness and equal protection.

Others argue that these laws may infringe upon individual freedoms, such as freedom of association or the right to appoint board members based on qualifications and merit alone.

Opinions on the necessity of mandates for diversity and inclusion in corporate boards also vary. While it is true that many companies have made progress in increasing the number of women and diverse board members voluntarily, the mandates are seen by some as a necessary step to accelerate progress and address historical disparities.

Supporters argue that these mandates create a more level playing field and ensure sustained efforts towards inclusivity, especially in industries or sectors where progress has been slow.

In conclusion, the constitutionality and favorability of diversity and inclusion laws in the USA are subjective and dependent on individual perspectives.

The mandates are seen by some as necessary to drive progress and address historical disparities, while others may have concerns about their impact on individual **freedoms**.

The ongoing debate reflects the complexity of balancing diversity, inclusion, and constitutional principles within corporate governance.

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At December 31, 2019, Metlock Corporation had the following stock outstanding. 10% cumulative preferred stock, $100 par, 107,612 shares $10,761,200 Common stock, $5 par, 4,070,700 shares 20,353,500 During 2020, Metlock did not issue any additional common stock. The following also occurred during 2020. Income from continuing operations before taxes Discontinued operations (loss before taxes) Preferred dividends declared Common dividends declared Effective tax rate $22,052,200 $3,517,800 $1,076,120 $2,011,400 35 % Compute earnings per share data as it should appear in the 2020 income statement of Metlock Corporation. (Round answers to 2 decimal places, e.g. 1.48.) Earnings Per Share Click if you would like to Show Work for this question: Open Show Work

### Answers

The **earnings per share** (EPS) for **Metlock Corporation** in 2020 can be calculated as follows:

Step 1: Calculate the earnings available to common **stockholders**:

Income from **continuing operations** before taxes: $22,052,200

Discontinued operations (loss before taxes): $3,517,800

**Effective tax rate**: 35%

Income tax expense from continuing operations: ($22,052,200 * 35%) = $7,717,770

Net income from continuing operations: $22,052,200 - $7,717,770 = $14,334,430

Net income available to common stockholders: $14,334,430 - Preferred dividends declared: $1,076,120 = $13,258,310

Step 2: Calculate the weighted average number of common shares outstanding:

Number of common shares outstanding: 4,070,700

Step 3: Calculate the earnings per share:

EPS = Net income available to common stockholders / Weighted average number of common shares outstanding

EPS = $13,258,310 / 4,070,700 = $3.25 per share

Therefore, the **earnings per share **for Metlock Corporation in 2020 is $3.25.

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Assume that the width dimension in a product is normally distributed. Considering normally distributed variables, two standard deviations away from the mean in both directions encompasses approximately what percent of all observations? a. 34 b. 68 c. 95 d. 99

### Answers

Assuming that the width** dimension** in a product is normally distributed, two standard deviations away from the mean in both directions encompasses approximately 95% of all observations. The** percentage** of observations that fall within two standard deviations from the mean in either direction is known as the empirical rule, also known as the 95% rule.

In a normal distribution, the mean and standard deviation determine the shape of the **curve**. A standard deviation (σ) is a measure of the dispersion of a set of values from its mean. A normal distribution is a symmetrical bell curve with a mean of µ and a standard deviation of σ.The empirical rule, also known as the 68-95-99.7 rule or three-sigma rule, is a general rule that states that for a normal distribution, nearly all data falls within three standard deviations (denoted by σ) of the mean (denoted by µ).In conclusion, two standard deviations away from the mean in both** directions **encompasses approximately 95% of all observations. Therefore, the correct option is (c) 95.

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Brook Ltd. purchased 70 Meissner AG 9%, 10-year, €1,000 bonds on

January 1, 2020, for €70,000. The bonds pay interest annually on

January 1. Brook's business model is to hold these bonds to collect

contractual cash flows .The

market value of the bonds was €70,525 at the end of 2020. On January

2021. Brook sold 40 of the bonds for £40 200

Q:Prepare the entry.

### Answers

The journal entry to record the sale of 40 bonds would include **debiting **Cash for €40,200, debiting Bonds **Investment **for the carrying value of the bonds sold, and the difference would be recorded as Gain/Loss on the Sale of Bonds.

The journal entry to record the sale of 40 bonds would include debiting** **Cash for €40,200, debiting **Bonds Investment **for the carrying value of the bonds sold, and the difference would be recorded as Gain/Loss on the Sale of Bonds. For detailed calculation, we need the carrying value of the bonds sold which is calculated as the total** initial investment** times proportion of bonds sold (€70,000 * 40/70). Subtract this from the selling price to find the gain or loss. After performing these calculations, we can prepare the **journal entry **accordingly.

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6. Financial analysts are gathering information to analyze traditional retail stocks. .

rf = 4%, Beta = 1. 2, market rm = 6%, estimated from professional team analysis

Profit information: The current profit is 4 yuan per share, and the dividend ratio has been stable at 25% for a long time. Earnings growth will be 10%, 8%, and 5% in the next three years, respectively. Earnings then grew steadily at a rate of 3% per year.

Use the steady growth model to estimate (1) what the current stock price of the company should be if the stock price is reasonable?

(2) If the risk changes and the stock beta becomes 1, with the same model and information, should the stock price rise or fall, and what is the new stock price?

### Answers

If the stock price is reasonable, should be 26.0876 yuan. If the stock beta becomes 1, the stock price should rise, and the new **stock price** would still be 26.0876 yuan.

To estimate the current stock price of the company using the steady growth model, we need to calculate the dividends and the required rate of return. Let's break it down step by step:

1. Calculate the dividends:

- The current profit per share is 4 yuan.

- The dividend ratio is 25%, so the dividend per share is 4 yuan * 0.25 = 1 yuan.

2. Calculate the required rate of return:

- The risk-free rate (rf) is given as 4%.

- The market return (rm) is estimated at 6% from professional team analysis.

- The beta (β) is given as 1.2.

We can use the Capital Asset Pricing Model (**CAPM**) to calculate the required rate of return:

Required Rate of Return = rf + β * (rm - rf)

= 4% + 1.2 * (6% - 4%)

= 4% + 1.2 * 2%

= 4% + 2.4%

= 6.4%

3. Calculate the stock price using the steady growth model:

- The earnings growth for the next three years is 10%, 8%, and 5%, respectively.

- After the third year, the earnings will grow steadily at a rate of 3% per year.

We can calculate the expected dividends in the future years using the earnings growth rates:

Year 1 dividend = 1 yuan * (1 + 10%) = 1.1 yuan

Year 2 dividend = 1.1 yuan * (1 + 8%) = 1.188 yuan

Year 3 dividend = 1.188 yuan * (1 + 5%) = 1.2474 yuan

Now, let's calculate the expected dividend after the third year and the stock price using the steady growth model:

Expected dividend after Year 3 = 1.2474 yuan * (1 + 3%) / (6.4% - 3%) = 24.949 yuan

The stock price can be calculated by summing up the present value of the expected future dividends:

Stock price = 1 yuan / (1 + 6.4%) + 1.1 yuan / (1 + 6.4%)² + 1.188 yuan / (1 + 6.4%)³ + 24.949 yuan / (1 + 6.4%)³

= 0.9412 yuan + 1.0468 yuan + 1.1436 yuan + 22.956 yuan

= 26.0876 yuan

The current stock price of the company, if the stock price is reasonable, should be 26.0876 yuan.

Now, let's consider the scenario where the stock beta becomes 1. With the same model and information, the stock price will change.

If the stock beta decreases from 1.2 to 1, the required rate of return will decrease as well. Since the required rate of return is used in the calculation of the stock price, a **decrease** in the required rate of return will result in a higher stock price.

To calculate the new stock price, we need to recalculate the required rate of return using the new beta of 1.

New Required Rate of Return = rf + β * (rm - rf)

= 4% + 1 * (6% - 4%)

= 4% + 1 * 2%

= 4% + 2%

= 6%

Using the new required rate of return, the new stock price can be calculated using the steady growth model as described earlier.

Therefore, if the stock beta becomes 1, the stock price should rise, and the new stock price would be the same as the previous calculation, which is 26.0876 yuan.

The current stock price of the company, if the stock price is reasonable, should be 26.0876 yuan.

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Why is there not a single set of leader behaviors which defines strong leadership?

A. Because leaders’ behaviors vary depending on their mood

B. Because the optimal set of leader behaviors depends on the situation the leader is in

C. Because leaders get tired of using a single set of behaviors

D. Because followers get tired of experiencing the same set of behaviors all the time

### Answers

Option (b),"Why is there not a single set of leader behaviors which defines strong leadership?" is because the optimal set of **leader behaviors **depends on the situation the leader is in.

**Leadership **is a complex and multifaceted concept that cannot be boiled down to a single set of behaviors. Furthermore, the optimal set of leader behaviors varies depending on the situation in which the leader finds themselves.

According to **Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model**, effective leadership involves adapting one's behavior to suit the needs of the situation. As a result, different leadership styles are better suited to various situations, and effective leaders are able to adapt their style to fit the needs of the group they are leading. Thus, a single set of leader behaviors cannot define strong leadership because different situations require different behaviors from a leader.

To sum up, the optimal set of leader behaviors depends on the situation the leader is in. Therefore, there cannot be a single set of leader behaviors that defines strong leadership.

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